ಕರೆಂಟ್ ಮತ್ತು ಅಣುಗಳ ನಂಟು

ಕರೆಂಟ್ ಅಂದರೇನು ? ಕರೆಂಟನ್ನು ತಾಮ್ರ, ಕಬ್ಬಿಣದಂತಹ ವಸ್ತುಗಳಷ್ಟೇ ಏಕೆ ತನ್ನ ಮೂಲಕ ಹಾಯ್ದು ಹೋಗಲು ಬಿಡುತ್ತವೆ ? ವೋಲ್ಟೇಜ್ ಅಂದರೇನು ? ಹೀಗೆ ಹಲವು ಪ್ರಶ್ನೆಗಳು ನಮ್ಮಲ್ಲಿ ಮೂಡಬಹುದು. ಮುಂದಿನ ಕೆಲವು ಬರಹಗಳಲ್ಲಿ ‘ಮೊದಲ’ ಹಂತದಿಂದ ವಿಷಯವನ್ನು ಅರಿಯಲು ಪ್ರಯತ್ನಿಸೋಣ.

 

comb-static-electricity

ಮೊದಲಿಗೆ ನಮ್ಮ ಎಂದಿನ ಬದುಕಿನಲ್ಲಿ ಕಂಡುಬರುವ ಈ ಉದಾಹರಣೆಗಳನ್ನು ನೋಡಿ,

  • ಬಾಚಣಿಗೆಯಿಂದ ಕೂದಲು ಬಾಚಿ, ಅದೇ ಬಾಚಣಿಗೆಯನ್ನು ಹಾಳೆಯ ತುಂಡುಗಳೆಡೆಗೆ ಹಿಡಿದಾಗ ಹಾಳೆಯ ತುಂಡುಗಳು ಬಾಚಣಿಗೆಯತ್ತ ಸೆಳೆಯಲ್ಪಡುತ್ತವೆ.
  • ರೇಷ್ಮೆ ಬಟ್ಟೆಗೆ ಮಯ್ಯಿ ತಾಕಿದಾಗ ಕೆಲವು ಸಲ ಚುರುಕೆನ್ನುವಂತ ಅನುಭವವಾಗುತ್ತದೆ.

ಮೇಲಿನ ಎರಡು ಉದಾಹರಣೆಗಳ ಹಿಂದೆ ಇರುವುದು ವಸ್ತುಗಳ ನಡುವೆ ಆಗುವ ಮಿಂಚಿನಂತಹ ಅಂದರೆ ಕರೆಂಟನಂತಹ ಕಸುವಿನ ಸಾಗಾಟ. ಇದನ್ನು ಇಂಗ್ಲೀಶಿನಲ್ಲಿ ‘ಚಾರ್ಜ್’ (Charge) ಎಂದು ಕರೆಯುತ್ತಾರೆ. ಕನ್ನಡದಲ್ಲಿ ಇದಕ್ಕೆ ‘ಹುರುಪು’ ಎನ್ನಬಹುದು. ಬಾಚಣಿಗೆಯಲ್ಲಿದ್ದ ಒಂದು ಬಗೆಯ ಮಿಂಚಿನ ‘ಹುರುಪು’ (electric charge) ಹಾಳೆಯಲ್ಲಿದ್ದ ಇನ್ನೊಂದು ಬಗೆಯ ಮಿಂಚಿನ ಹುರುಪನ್ನು ತನ್ನೆಡೆಗೆ ಸೆಳೆಯುವುದರಿಂದ ನಮಗೆ ಮಿಂಚು ಹರಿವಿನ ಅನುಭವಾಗುತ್ತದೆ. ಇದೇನಿದು ‘ಒಂದು ಬಗೆ’ ಮತ್ತು ‘ಇನ್ನೊಂದು ಬಗೆ’ಯ ಹುರುಪು (charge) ? ಹಾಗಾದರೆ ಬನ್ನಿ ಈಗ ಕರೆಂಟ್ ಹೊರತಾದ ವಸ್ತುಗಳ ಒಳಗಡೆ ಇಣುಕೋಣ.

1) ವಸ್ತುಗಳ ಒಳಗಡೆಯ ಕಿರಿದಾದ ರೂಪಕ್ಕೆ ‘ಅಣು’/’ಸೀರು’ (atom) ಎಂದು ಕರೆಯಲಾಗುತ್ತದೆ. ಕಬ್ಬಿಣ, ಕಟ್ಟಿಗೆ, ನೀರು, ಹಾಳೆ ಮುಂತಾದ ಎಲ್ಲಾ  ವಸ್ತುಗಳೂ ಕೋಟಿಗಟ್ಟಲೇ ಕಿರಿದಾದ ಅಣುಗಳಿಂದ ಮಾಡಲ್ಪಟ್ಟಿರುತ್ತವೆ. ವಸ್ತುವಿನ ಅಣುಗಳು ಅವುಗಳ ಗುಣವನ್ನು ತೀರ್ಮಾನಿಸುತ್ತವೆ.

Atom

 

2) ವಸ್ತುಗಳ ಅಣುವಿನಲ್ಲಿ ಈ ಕೆಳಗಿನ ಭಾಗಗಳಿರುತ್ತವೆ.

  •  ನಡುವಣ (nucleus): ಇದು ಅಣುವಿನ ನಟ್ಟ ನಡುವಿನ ಭಾಗವಾಗಿದ್ದು ಇದರಲ್ಲಿ ಪ್ರೋಟಾನ್ ಮತ್ತು ನ್ಯೂಟ್ರಾನ್ಗಳು ಇರುತ್ತವೆ.
  • ಪ್ರೋಟಾನ್ಗಳನ್ನು ‘ಸೆಳೆತದ ಬಯಲಿಗೆ’ (magnetic field) ಒಳಪಡಿಸಿದಾಗ ಅವುಗಳು ಬಯಲಿಗೆ ಎದುರಾಗಿ ಸಾಗುವುದರಿಂದ ಅವುಗಳು ಒಂದು ಬಗೆಯ ‘ಹುರುಪು’ (charge) ಹೊಂದಿವೆ ಎಂದು ಗುರುತಿಸಲಾಗುತ್ತದೆ. ತಿಳುವಳಿಕೆಯನ್ನು ಸುಲಭವಾಗಿಸಲು ಪ್ರೋಟಾನ್ಗಳು ತೋರುವ ಈ ಎದುರು ಬಗೆಯ ಹುರುಪಿಗೆ (charge) ‘ಕೂಡು’ ಅಂದರೆ + (positive) ಗುರುತನ್ನು ತಳುಕುಹಾಕಲಾಗಿದೆ, ಹಾಗಾಗಿ ಪ್ರೋಟಾನ್ಗಳನ್ನು ‘ಪಾಸಿಟಿವಲಿ ಚಾರ್ಜ್ಡ್’ (positively charged) ಅನ್ನಲಾಗುತ್ತದೆ. ಈ ಗುಣವನ್ನು ಬಳಸುತ್ತಾ ಕನ್ನಡದಲ್ಲಿ ಪ್ರೋಟಾನ್ಗಳನ್ನು ‘ಕೂಡು-ಹುರುಪಿನವು’ ಇಲ್ಲವೇ ‘ಕೂಡುವಣಿಗಳು’ ಎಂದು ಕರೆಯಬಹುದು.
  • ಅದೇ ನ್ಯೂಟ್ರಾನ್ಗಳನ್ನು ‘ಸೆಳೆತದ ಬಯಲಿಗೆ’  (magnetic field) ಒಳಪಡಿಸಿದಾಗ ಅವುಗಳು ಯಾವುದೇ ಒಂದು ಬಗೆಯ ಹುರುಪು (charge) ತೋರಗೊಡುವುದಿಲ್ಲ (ಒಂದು ಬಗೆಯ ಹುರುಪಿಲ್ಲದೇ ನೆಲೆಗೊಂಡಿರುವುದರಿಂದ ಕನ್ನಡದಲ್ಲಿ ನ್ಯೂಟ್ರಾನ್ಗಳನ್ನು ‘ನೆಲೆವಣಿಗಳು’ ಅನ್ನಬಹುದು).
  • ನಡುವಣದ (nucleus) ಸುತ್ತ ಸುತ್ತುವ ತುಣುಕುಗಳೇ ಇಲೆಕ್ಟ್ರಾನ್ಸ್.  ಇವುಗಳನ್ನು ‘ಸೆಳೆತದ ಬಯಲಿಗೆ’  (magnetic field) ಒಳಪಡಿಸಿದಾಗ, ಬಯಲಿನೆಡೆಗೆ ಸಾಗುವುದರಿಂದ ಇವುಗಳು ಪ್ರೋಟಾನ್ಗಗಿಂತ ಬೇರೆ ಬಗೆಯ ಹುರುಪನ್ನು (charge) ಹೊಂದಿವೆ ಎಂದು ತಿಳಿದುಕೊಳ್ಳಲಾಗಿದೆ. ಆದ್ದರಿಂದ ಪ್ರೋಟಾನ್ಗಳಿಗೆ ‘ಕೂಡು’ (+) ಗುರುತು ತಳುಕುಹಾಕಿದಂತೆ ಇಲೆಕ್ಟ್ರಾನ್ಗಳಿಗೆ ಕಳೆ (-) ಗುರುತು ತಳುಕಿಸಲಾಗಿದೆ. ಅಂದರೆ ಇಲೆಕ್ಟ್ರಾನ್ಸಗಳು ‘ನೆಗೆಟಿವ್ ಚಾರ್ಜ್ಡ್’ (negative charge) ಹೊಂದಿರುತ್ತವೆ. ಹಾಗಿದ್ದರೆ ಇಲೆಕ್ಟ್ರಾನ್ಗಳನ್ನು ಕನ್ನಡದಲ್ಲಿ ‘ಕಳೆ-ಹುರುಪಿನವು’ ಇಲ್ಲವೇ ‘ಕಳೆವಣಿಗಳು’ ಅನ್ನಬಹುದು.
  • ಒಂದು ಅಣುವಿನಲ್ಲಿ ಕೂಡುವಣಿಗಳು (protons) ಮತ್ತು ಕಳೆವಣಿಗಳು (electrons) ಅಷ್ಟೇ ಸಂಖ್ಯೆಯಲ್ಲಿದ್ದರೆ ಆ ವಸ್ತುಗಳು ಕರೆಂಟಿಗೆ ಅನುವು ಮಾಡಿಕೊಡುವುದಿಲ್ಲ. ಅದೇ ಕಳೆವಣಿಗಳು (electrons) ಮತ್ತು ಕೂಡುವಣಿಗಳ (protons) ಸಂಖ್ಯೆಯು ಅಣುವಿನಲ್ಲಿ ಬೇರೆ ಬೇರೆ ಸಂಖ್ಯೆಯಲ್ಲಿದ್ದರೆ ಆ  ವಸ್ತುವಿನಿಂದ ಇನ್ನೊಂದು ವಸ್ತುವಿಗೆ ಕಳೆವಣಿಗಳ (electrons) ಕೊಡುಕೊಳ್ಳುವಿಕೆಯಾಗಿ ಕರೆಂಟ್ ಉಂಟಾಗುತ್ತದೆ.

ಬಾಚಣಿಗೆಯಿಂದ ಕೂದಲು ಬಾಚಿದಾಗ ಮತ್ತು ಬಾಚಣಿಗೆಯನ್ನು ಹಾಳೆಯೆಡೆಗೆ ಹಿಡಿದಾಗ ಆದದ್ದು ಇದೇ, ಕೂದಲಿನ ಅಣುಗಳು ಇಲೆಕ್ಟ್ರಾನ್ಗಳನ್ನು ಕಳೆದುಕೊಂಡರೆ ಬಾಚಣಿಕೆಯ ಅಣುಗಳು ಇಲೆಕ್ಟ್ರಾನ್ಗಳನ್ನು ಪಡೆದುಕೊಂಡವು. ಹೀಗೆ ಇಲೆಕ್ಟ್ರಾನ್ಗಳ ಜಿಗಿತದಿಂದ ಉಂಟಾದದ್ದೇ ಕರೆಂಟ್.  ಈ ಬಗೆಯಲ್ಲಿ ಎರಡು ವಸ್ತುಗಳ ಉಜ್ಜುವಿಕೆ/ತಾಕುವಿಕೆಯಿಂದ ಉಂಟಾಗುವ ಕರೆಂಟನ್ನು ನೆಲೆಸಿದ ಕರೆಂಟ್ (static current/electricity) ಎಂದು ಕರೆಯಲಾಗುತ್ತದೆ.

ನಮ್ಮ ಮನೆಗೆ ಹರಿಯುವ ಕರೆಂಟ್ ವಸ್ತುಗಳ ಅಣುಗಳಲ್ಲಿರುವ ಇಲೆಕ್ಟ್ರಾನ್ಗಳ ಹರಿವಿನಿಂದಲೇ ದೊರೆಯುವುದು ಆದರೆ ಅದು ನೆಲೆಸಿದ ಕರೆಂಟಗಿಂತ (static current) ಒಂಚೂರು ಬೇರೆ ಬಗೆಯದು. ಈ ಕುರಿತು ಮುಂದಿನ ಬರಹದಲ್ಲಿ ನೋಡೋಣ.

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